Lancet. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. cˆ‚�‹‹Gˆf46¶ 39:Ğı�ä¿F(f`�f ’òœL±mÅ«âà0‰ ƒM`q˜ª ®> ìÂ>$h Table 3 Description of causes of 148 notified cases of microcephaly in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from 01 Dec 2015 to 31 Dec 2016. aCriteria for notification from Dec 2015 to Feb 2016 only. We thank CEVS for its support in case assessment; SIAT for its work on data investigation; the management of HCPA, which served as the referral hospital for these cases; and the Graduate Program in Medical Sciences at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. © 2019 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. STORCH infections could be only confirmed in 5.4% of cases, and this small percentage is probably due to lack of availability of laboratory tests.11 In Piauí, northeast Brazil, a prevalence of 13.6/10 000 cases of microcephaly during the Zika virus epidemic was observed in 2015-2016, with 45.3% (34/75) of them possibly related to Zika, since STORCH in those was negative.13. | Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. USA.gov. Table 1 Laboratory and imaging investigation of 148 notified cases of microcephaly in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from 01 Dec 2015 to 31 Dec 2016. aUltrasonography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging. Neurology. Conclusion: [ Links ], 9 Oliveira WK, Cortez-Escalante J, De Oliveira WTG, do Carmo GMI, Henriques CMP, Coelho GE, et al. 2017 Aug 26;390(10097):861-870. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31368-5. Progenitor death drives retinal dysplasia and neuronal degeneration in a mouse model of ATRIP-Seckel syndrome. Barsosio HC, Gitonga JN, Karanja HK, Nyamwaya DK, Omuoyo DO, Kamau E, Hamaluba MM, Nyiro JU, Kitsao BS, Nyaguara A, Mwakio S, Newton CR, Sang R, Wright D, Sanders EJ, Seale AC, Agoti CN, Berkley JA, Bejon P, Warimwe GM. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2014;384:857-68. 2016;106:972-82. Epub 2017 Jun 21. RT-PCR was negative in the baby's LCR and serum. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Microcephaly in Piauí: a descriptive study during the Zika virus epidemic: 2015-2016. A similar rate was reported in the USA, in a sample of newborns with microcephaly, with 13% of cases attributable to confirmed genetic conditions.14 In South American hospitals, in the ECLAMC study,12 23% of the microcephalic babies were diagnosed with a genetic syndrome, and 12% of cases were associated with neural malformations, not too different from our study. Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Ribeiro IG, Andrade MR, Silva JM, Silva ZM, Costa MAO, Vieira MADCES, Batista FMA, Guimarães H, Wada MY, Saad E. Epidemiol Serv Saude. Gabriel E, Ramani A, Altinisik N, Gopalakrishnan J. The pathogenesis of microcephaly resulting from congenital infections: why is my baby's head so small? Front Cell Neurosci. „f`ÒˆMàØ„Á˜1ƒù1Có The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Magalhães-Barbosa MC, Prata-Barbosa A, Robaina JR, Raymundo CE, Lima-Setta F, Cunha AJ. Overall, 18 mothers (18.3%) reported having consumed alcohol during pregnancy (of those, 5 had given birth to neonates with CNS abnormalities of undefined etiology), and 30 reported smoking; 14 reported use of illegal drugs. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2013 Aug;12(8):637-44. doi: 10.1016/j.dnarep.2013.04.016. | i, Lavínia Schuler-Faccinic However, congenital microcephaly is a heterogeneous diagnosis based on a measure of head circumference, with a number of genetic and environmental causes described to date, including congenital infections, genetic syndromes, and isolated CNS malformations.1,5,6 Most current guidelines deﬁne microcephaly as an occipitofrontal circumference Interestingly, a defect in a gene whose encoded protein has a canonical function in one of these processes can often have multiple impacts at the cellular level involving several of these pathways. Am J Trop Med Hyg. Congenital microcephaly. Alcantara D, O'Driscoll M. The underlying etiologies of genetic congenital microcephaly are complex and multifactorial. A review for case notification was made by the Ministry of Health in February 2016, when microcephaly was defined by HC < 2Z scores below the mean for sex and gestational age (GA), according to the Intergrowth curves.10 Assessment of cases followed the guidelines of the Surveillance and Response Protocol published by the Ministry of Health.1. Not tested during her pregnancy. The aim of this study was to identify the causes of congenital microcephaly in Rio Grande do Sul, a state in southern Brazil, where no ZIKV outbreak was detected, from December 2015 to December 2016, which was the period when ZIKV infection was at its peak in northeast Brazil. 2020 Oct 1;143(10):2874-2894. doi: 10.1093/brain/awaa174. The exact causes of microcephaly are not known. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. What causes microcephaly? 2019 Jul 18;52:e20190105. | [ Links ], 5 Cragan JD, Isenburg JL, Parker SE, Alverson CJ, Meyer RE, Stallings EB, et al. Possible Association Between Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly - Brazil. 2017;359, j5018. In the 58 confirmed cases of microcephaly (prevalence = 3.8/10 000 live births), congenital infections (syphilis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, and ZIKV) constituted the predominant etiology (50.0%), followed by isolated CNS (15.5%), and genetic syndromes (10.3%). Case concluded as CZS based on clinical and epidemiological criteria. [ Links ], 3 Rasmussen SA, Jamieson DJ, Margaret AH, Petersen LR. Causes of congenital microcephaly include: Prenatal infections: Exposure to the Zika virus, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy, can damage nerve cells in the brain.