They are one of the latest fall migrants and earliest spring arrivals, remaining on the breeding grounds through October and often returning by early April. Slate-colored Fox Sparrow. The range expansion (seen in the eBird data) over the last decade, might be indicative of Fox Sparrows moving into less preferred habitat (because the preferred habitat is occupied) or habitat that is simply more accessible to birders. Sibley (2000) indicates that this group has the most diagnostic call note, "a high, flat squeak [sic] teep like California towhee". Fox Sparrow are an uncommon breeding species in far northern Maine. Don’t let the bewildering variety of regional differences this bird shows across North America deter you: it’s one of the first species you should suspect if you see a streaky sparrow in an open, shrubby, or wet area. Breeds in the interior mountains of British Columbia through the Rocky Mountains as far south as Colorado. Red fox sparrow is the collective name for the most brightly colored taxa in the American sparrow genus Passerella, the Passerella iliaca iliaca group. Only a handful of people each year are lucky enough to find Fox Sparrows during Mountain Birdwatch. The dark blue line shows the mean response, while the thin blue lines show less likely alternative forms of this relationship. , They winter in temperate and subtropical North America; in the northern United States and southern Canada they often only stop over on their migration further south. In fall, they start to move south around early October, and by mid-November, only the last stragglers still remain up North. Although the culmens of both groups are grayish brown, slate-coloreds have yellow lower mandibles instead of the steel blue of the thick-billeds'. , However, the populations occupy different ranges, apparently—as far as they can be distinguished—with just a small band of overlap. Fox Sparrows have been consistently moving southwest through northern New England. The streaks continue down the flanks but the belly is generally white. Fox Sparrow illustrations in popular field guides, along with implications for identifying them in the entral Valley. As such, data on overall population trends are scanty. Its voice is described as "a loud smack like Brown Thrasher".. The annual estimate of Fox Sparrows in the immediate vicinity (~100-m circle) of approximately 750 Mountain Birdwatch survey locations.  Clutch consists of 3–5 pale blue to pale green eggs that are thickly spotted with brown. State of Mountain Birds is a project of the Vermont Center for Ecostudies. At that time, Fox Sparrows were only known to occur during the breeding season in the far northwest corner of the state. Better known as a winter visitor in our region, recent evidence suggests that this species is rapidly expanding its breeding range mountaintop to mountaintop, moving southwest in New Hampshire and Vermont. International Bicknell's Thrush Conservation Group, eBird data for this species during June and July. Research on suspected (Rising & Beadle 1996) hybridization and considering additional DNA sequence data led to confirmation of their distinctiveness (Zink & Kessen 1999); this group appears to be most closely related to the sooty and/or slate-colored fox sparrows. Washington is likely small and diffuse, and their nests can be exceedingly difficult to locate. Please contact Jason Hill with any questions, suggestions or wishes to collaborate with these data. However, the available data, most of which is collected in the southern parts of the range of Fox Sparrow, suggests a stable population. Since 2011, Mountain Birdwatch data indicate relatively small but steady numbers of this species along Mountain Birdwatch routes.  This group appears to be most closely related to the slate-colored fox sparrows, but it is altogether likely to represent the basalmost divergence of the fox sparrow clade.. Fox Sparrows can be classified into 4 broad groups, however, each of which contains several subspecies: The breeding range (green) of Fox Sparrow extends across the boreal forest of Canada and Alaska, the coastal mountains of the Pacific, and into the interior mountains of western North America. The red fox sparrow is a large sparrow with a length of 15–19 cm (6–7.5 inches), wingspan of 27 cm (10.5 inches) and an average weight of 32 grams (1.1 oz). The morphological distinction between the subspecies is not pronounced and the birds are not resident all year; therefore positive identification within the red fox sparrow complex is often not possible in the field, at least in some regions.
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