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The old speculation about its origin is that the river Varuna itself was known as Varanasi. The city is unique in the architectural, artistic and religious expressions of traditional Indian culture and is, even today a living example of this culture. The entire water of the Guwahati city should, ideally, pass through the Bharalu and the Bahini and ultimately fall into the mighty Brahmaputra. It is high time we take appropriate actions to safeguard our rivers and rivulets; otherwise, detrimental and disastrous consequences are evident. It is the most cultural and spiritual capital of the India which is renowned for having the largest residential University of Asia Benares Hindu University. This ghat is very clean and attractive. 2016). The river is an essential component of all the scared ritual practices on the ghat area. Similarly, River Assi in Varanasi is, today, almost no more. Starting first from the nucleus of Omkareshvar in the north under the shadow of the Reajghat Plateau, the highest place in the city, being above the flood  limit and subject to minimum erosion. People coming to Varanasi make it a point to take up this charming boat ride along the river preferably in the morning. Varanasi is situated at the junction of three national highways -NH2 from Kolkata to Delhi, NH7 to Kanyakumari and NH29 to Gorakhpur and undoubtedly it is one of the busiest roads of India. I respect a person who is disciplined and respect others. Preventing the haphazard urban development including the encroachment of the river banks, proper solid waste disposal mechanism and environmental monitoring towards effluent treatment facilities of the industries is essential in order to prevent further destruction of the river systems in the city. The techniques adopted are proving detrimental to the environment. The ancient cantonment lying south of the Barna and north of the Grand Trunk road. The river Barna was bridged at two points viz. See http://www.pcbassam.org/rlcc/BHARALU/Bhalaru%20City%20Sanitation%20Plan_Draft%20Final.pdf. However, today, both the Bharalu and the Bahini are reduced to mere ‘nallahs’ or ‘sewers’ due to rapid, unplanned and haphazard developmental activities and urbanization processes ubiquitous in the city. One of the temples of the Goddess Annapurna was made by the king of Poona. It was during the rule of Aryans that it flourished as commercial as well industrial hub. See http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/guwahati/GMDA-orders-diversion-of-Bahini-River-to-check-flashfloods-in-Zoo-Road-Beltola/articleshow/11014765.cms. Tourists are resting at the ghat where a small child is selling chana. 2016: 498). Lying at the center of the five tirthas, Manikarnika Ghat symbolizes both creation and destruction. As per historians Varanasi used to be the main nucleus of Aryan religion. Adv Mater Technol 1:1600002. doi:10.1002/admt.201600002, Bhargava DS (1998) Foolproof pollution control of Indian rivers. A largely ignored segment of the ‘River System Studies’ in India is the country’s ‘Rivulets’. The report reveals that the topography of Guwahati city is ‘bowl-shaped’ with some areas lying at the lowest points of the bowl.Footnote 4 This leads to involuntary stagnation of water over a short period of time during the heavy rainfall in monsoon. We also try to identify the significance of these rivers and rivulets in sustaining the well-being of the city and major challenges to these two important ecosystems. Permeability to the city has reduced, either the street is closed or the street width has reduced which has led to: Varanasi has witnessed lot of subdivision of ghats which has been regular phenomenon, but what is actually the result of these subdivisions are: The steps are laid with chunar sandstone with a special pattern. Most of the pollution prevention initiatives by the central or the state governments are directed towards the major rivers such as the Ganga, practically ignoring the equally vital rivulets. Although established much before, its major development took place in the later half of the nineteenth century. According to the ancient history, it is said that the Goddess Durga (consort of the Lord Shiva) had thrown her sword in the river (called Assi River) after killing the demon Shumbha-Nishumbha. After India’s independence it became a part of present Uttar Pradesh. You will be mesmerized to see the morning life at the ghats involving daily routine and religious activities of the devotees. Broad thoroughfares were cut through the city where formerly there had been narrow lanes. It is the place where Gautama Buddha has given his first sermon at the holy place named Sarnath. Kashi is situated at the banks of the Holy River Ganges in the Uttar Pradesh state of India. The city derives its name from these two rivers. A majority of them are nothing but rivulets or small tributaries of major rivers. Hotels and lodge sand not the dharamshalas occupy the front of the river stretch. With River Assi almost dead, measures should immediately be undertaken to safeguard the Varuna. These are as follows: The pre-urban physical landscape consisted natural forest cover and was carved out by the ganga and its left hand tributary streams. Manikarnika Ghat is one of the oldest and most sacred Ghats in Varanasi. Besides the remnants of the British. - The Gomti river merges into river Ganga very close to Varanasi about 25 km from the city. The only challenge lies in the timely and meticulous execution of these efforts in a country laden with significant time gap between the formulation and implementation of any policy measure (Borthakur 2016). As the sun rises on the river Ganges, the ghats of Varanasi witness hordes of people making their way to the holy river, in order to pay their respects and conduct their daily puja. Copyright © White Planet Technologies Pvt. very small rivers or streams) passing through some of the major Indian cities.

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