What happens when you have a really unpopular king or leader? In other words, "No. I'd like to begin by thanking Linda for that very kind introduction and for giving you that background there. Again, I have recorded for you or I've written down for you a translation into English of one of these laws. You see? They could say that in the matter of X versus Y, "We interpreted law number 25 in this particular way, and if we had done so then, we should do so now unless we have a significant reason to alter that." Then they come to a consensus, they make a decision, and they put that decision into action. You can see. The two rivers are the mighty Tigris and Euphrates rivers that stretch their long fingers up across ancient Mesopotamia or across what is largely contemporary Iraq, but also going a little into Syria and into Turkey there, for those of you who know your geography. What does "Mesopotamia" actually mean? We're talking here about the world's first sophisticated agriculture, irrigation, animal domestication, farming techniques. I'd also like just briefly like to pause and thank the Melbourne Museum. I apologize for that. The court, the king had to entertain, had to listen to, and had to take advice from an increasing array of people ‑‑ bureaucrats, merchants, physicians, priests, clergymen, judges, poets and military leaders. Anybody know what "extispicy" means? I think it has a lot to do with democracy because democracy is done best when it is a debate between learned individuals, when people who have the knowledge come together, and discuss and debate the issues that concern the kingdom or the community. This was demonstrated politically in that Egypt’s bureaucratic system allowed female pharaohs to rule. He is, in fact, elected by the gods in order to take on Tiamat. Another reason that we have this particular view of ancient Mesopotamia as being ruled by these bloodthirsty tyrants is because they themselves, these kings themselves were very keen to always portray themselves as these mighty figures. History-World: Egypt and Mesopotamia Compared. I want to show you how Gilgamesh deals with this very important problem. Now, along with me, it's your job to welcome him to the stage. We should not smite it with weapons. We know that he was a very learned and educated king, but he also had a very political purpose for composing this library. It mocks him unbelievably. They could give their verdict in private. It was a long, long time ago. Similarly important is the idea of an election. I'm the manager of education and visitor programs at Museum Victoria. Please see our frequently asked questions to learn more about how we are supporting your safety. He's aiming his bow and arrow at him, and so on. These are the senior wealthy merchants, bureaucrats, scholars, religious figures, military figures, and so on. elect military leaders because of battles with other places. I want to move forward to the second Age of Empires. Here's a guy who's sitting there reading some tablets, contemplating what's going on in the universe and so on. It's the verse on King Nabonidus. I've given far too much power to these scholars. I'm not saying that King Ashurbanipal was a democrat. In fact we might call them sciences. This presents the king, Gilgamesh, with a big problem. They started to realize, "Hang on. "Should I continue my military campaign? I'm going to be dealing tonight exclusively with that other side. It is because of this written language that we know so much about ancient Mesopotamia. Why is melted paraffin was allowed to drop a certain height and not just rub over the skin? This is the very origin of human existence on earth according to the ancient Mesopotamian myth. If you think about all that has happened, all of the world events, all of the empires that have risen and fallen, all of things that have happened ‑‑ for example, since Christ until today, roughly 2,000 years ‑‑ we're talking about a much longer period of human history, 3,200 years of human history. Right here. That's what makes these partnerships unique and special. This privileged order was the minority in Mesopotamia. Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia were two great civilizations and among the earliest to emerge, starting after 3000 B.C. In fact, Ashurbanipal we know could read and write several different languages. The economy of ancient Mesopotamia mainly depended on agriculture and trade. This is the time that Marduk is elected. Before we do that, I would like to pay my respects to the Kulin Nation and acknowledge the traditional owners of the land that we're on tonight, the Bunurong and the Wurundjeri people, and pay my acknowledgments to any ancestors past and present. -The Akkadians took over Sumer under the … For example, the scholars don't like the king's son, he's not a very nice guy, he doesn't respect them, he doesn't go through his appropriate religious rituals and so on, so we're going to interpret the will of the gods. What we know is that it was a sealed opinion. Well, they flooded in ancient times regularly. Nabonidus was the last guy on the throne, the last of the ancient Mesopotamian rulers, but he was really unpopular. I wonder if you maybe should go back to your sources and double check.". I would like to reread these six pieces ‑‑ I'll go through what these six pieces are, in turn ‑‑ in order to discuss what they tell us about the politics of ancient Mesopotamia. In the third and final relief, we see one whole comic strip, which is, if you like, the victory celebration or ritual that goes on after these lions have been killed.
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