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For the first time in history, the southern filibuster was broken and The Senate finally passed its version on June 19 by vote of 73 to 27. Thanks for your vote! [61] Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6% in the North and about 18% in the South. The next day Connor unleashed billy clubs, police dogs, and high-pressure water hoses to disperse and punish the young demonstrators with a brutality that horrified the nation. This was especially true of the wives of Euro-American merchants and miners. Alabama, which had established universal white suffrage in 1819 when it became a state, also substantially reduced voting by poor whites. Because they could not vote, they could not sit on juries. Inflated currency was the solution, but that created distrust of the Richmond government. Get instant definitions for any word that hits you anywhere on the web! [79] Texas was transformed by a railroad network linking five important cities, among them Houston with its nearby port at Galveston, Dallas, Fort Worth, San Antonio, and El Paso. Baseball has been played in the Southern United States since at least the years leading up to the American Civil War. Observers conclude that collective identity and Southern distinctiveness are thus declining, particularly when defined against "an earlier South that was somehow more authentic, real, more unified and distinct". The other divisions, West South Central (Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana) and South Atlantic (West Virginia, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida) ranked seventh and fifth, respectively. The Kennedy administration now gave full-fledged support to the civil rights movement, but powerful southern congressman blocked any legislation. [84][85][86], United States began mobilizing for war in a major way in the spring of 1940. [77], In the late 19th century, Texas rapidly expanded its railroad network, creating a network of cities connected on a radial plan and linked to the port of Galveston. Many major banking corporations have headquarters in the region. [54], In addition, some slaveholders were inspired to free their slaves after the Revolution. Paramilitary organizations such as the White League in Louisiana (1874), the Red Shirts in Mississippi (1875) and rifle clubs, all "White Line" organizations, used organized violence against Republicans, both black and white, to remove Republicans from political office, repress and bar black voting, and restore the Democratic Party to power. They founded the States Rights Democratic or Dixiecrat Party. The small railroad system virtually collapsed, so that by 1864 internal travel was so difficult that the Confederate economy was crippled. In the late 20th century, the South changed dramatically. [157] By the 1940s the Supreme Court began to find disfranchisement measures like the “grandfather clause” and the white primary unconstitutional. The Southern United States, also known as the American South, the Southern States, or simply known as the South, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States. "[90], Farming shifted from cotton and tobacco to include cattle, rice, soybeans, corn, and other foods. [173] Kennedy responded by sending Congress a comprehensive civil rights bill, and ordered Attorney General Robert Kennedy to file federal lawsuits against segregated schools, and to deny funds for discriminatory programs. President Franklin D. Roosevelt noted the South as the "number one priority" in terms of need of assistance during the Great Depression. [136][137] 19th century and early 20th century games were common, especially once the professional leagues such as the Texas League, the Dixie League, and the Southern League were organized. [23] The Census Bureau defined three smaller divisions: The Council of State Governments, an organization for communication and coordination between states, includes in its South regional office the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and West Virginia.[24]. He adds other factors such as ongoing economic crisis in Mexico, new more liberal immigration policies in the United States, labor recruitment and smuggling, that have produced a major flow of Mexican and Hispanic migration to the southeast. Hugenots were among the first settlers in Charleston, along with the largest number of Orthodox Jews outside of New York City. The States farthest to the south are called the "Deep South". It was very bad for business, and for the image of a modernizing progressive urban South. Many were involved in the labor-intensive cultivation of tobacco, the first cash crop of Virginia. Usually, the South is defined as including the southeastern and south-central United States. [159], Pockets of resistance to integration in public places broke out in violence during the 1960s by the shadowy Ku Klux Klan, which caused a backlash among moderates. They were the largest group of non-English immigrants from the British Isles before the American Revolution. In 1976, Jimmy Carter defied this trend and became the first Southerner to break the pattern since Zachary Taylor in 1848. [174] After Kennedy was assassinated President Lyndon Johnson called for immediate passage of Kennedy civil rights legislation as a memorial to the martyred president.

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