Sometimes other letters are added: SM for sacra moneta, M for moneta and OB for obryza (gold) (cup with which one verified the title of gold). Every part of the emperor’s name is taken by him in specific events. The letter L is the standard abbreviation for Lucius, the first name of the emperor and SEPT SEV for Septimius Severus. It values 1/25 from a gold aureus and 16 asses. While the soldier's sword was on the right, the gladius. The coins . From Hadrian onwards, most of the emperors have a beard. Now what is missing? It was originally made from silver but Augustus mints this coin in bronze. Also, it was light, around 3 gr. Some coins may have on their reverse the mention S C and have a Latin legend, as for the bronzes of Antioch, style can make the difference. Annona : the annona = Female character wearing ears of wheat and a cornucopia. Genivs : Genius = Naked male character with a cornucopia and a crown circle on his head. Moreover, they don’t have any kind of clothes. Like the denarii, they find themselves in billon and therefore with a bronze aspect, because of their low silver content. It is a rare coin, very rarely minted. The third started in the year 202 so by this title, the coin is minted between 1 january 194 and 31 december 201. P M: PONTIFEX MAXIMVS = great pontiff The Sign that Changed the World All the emperors that came after Augustus kept this formula of the name, adding some more cognomens, usually representing some functions and of course changing the father’s name. Septimius Severus minted denarius at around 50-70 %. Spes : hope = Female character carrying a flower. S M for sacra moneta and ANT for Antioch, following a delta or alpha for example, thus designating the officina. BEST OF For the duration of the empire, ordinary coins are the Aureus, the Golden quinarius or half Aureus, the silver denarius and the silver quinarius. ΕΠΙ Γ Ι ΚΡΙΣΠΟΥ ΑΡΚ: name of the magistrate and his office. K, KAR, KART, PK, PKA, PKB, PKT, PKP, PKS. In the imperial time, it was rarely minted. To complete, a word will be meet for several different elements, it is the word "type". Treveri (Trèves, Germany): 294 to 395, 408 to 413 then to 430 after J-C. Laetitia : joy = Female character holding a scepter and a garland. ", your interlocutor will answer you perhaps "I speak of the type of reverses, because I collect only the coins of the LIBERTAS type". Usually, it has superb scenes on the back, because of the large available space. in the Ancient World with an extensive collection of numismatic data, ancient history and art. Fertility Pregnancy and Childbirth and the diameter can vary in size. Similarly, the Gallienus coins and particularly Tetricus I and II are very often largely off-center. 1 Denarius (silver) = 4 sestertii For women, the bust is placed on a crescent if it is an antoninian. It weighed 1 to 5 g and has a diameter of 14mm 1. If he considered necessary he appointed new members or put out old ones for morality problems. To identify these divinities, some simple means, we know that if it is not an allegory, it is a deity, following the attributes and objects holding the character, we already have an indication of his specialty. Il va descendre de 1/32° de Livre a 1/42° puis 1/96° en 313. The Hexastyle Temple of Caligula In this case, we must determine a die (all the same details, positions as on another coin) to know that it is the die of an original, that has been used with another die of obverse or reverse. The quadrans have a slight negligent aspect. Practise first using the short "how to" pdf. Another clue, an obverse with Laureate Emperor and with DAC GER in the legend, will not have a reverse with allegory Pax (peace) or a divinity unrelated to a victory. The Follis goes down until 348 to 1/96° of pound to 1/192° of pound. There may be a link, however. People in the Bible Who Issued Coins Illustrated Ancient Coin Glossary Also, the letters were changed. Why Do Some Ancient Coins Have Holes In Them? Thus, the RIC 177 for Antoninus Pius designates an aureus with on the obverse the bust of Antoninus the Pius laureate and draped, legend ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XII and on the reverse Aequitas holding a balance and a cornucopia with legend COS IIII. In some cases, you cannot take out from some countries ancient coins or artifacts, because of the laws. These variants are either already listed in these books or mentioned as modern discovery and therefore variants of the types already referenced.
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