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In this case, VCC and GND of sensor module are connected to 5v and GND of Arduino Board, the sensor has only one output pin OUT that connects to Arduino's digital PIN (PIN 8). FIG. The apparatus can include a spacer layer that covers active portions of some sensor circuits but not all sensors. FIG. MAP begins to change once the location is moved to the arterioles. For more general and specific information related to computation fluid dynamics used to determine hemodynamic parameters, reference is made to Lee, Byoung-Kwon. IR transmitter So, in this project, we are going to design a simple Infrared Proximity Sensor circuit Using NPN Transistors. The use of proximity/light sensors is important in a variety of applications, including mobile devices and industrial controls. Slides 17 and 18 of the underlying Provisional Application (Ser. 11 is unfiltered. IR Proximity Sensor with Arduino Board. 20 illustrate example respiration rates collected using an apparatus in accordance with various experimental embodiments; FIG. All rights reserved. The base capacitance can be on the order of 5-75 pF and the resulting pulse-waveform signal (from the pulse-wave events) can have a maximum amplitude on the order of 0.1 to 1 pF. Various blocks, modules or other circuits may be implemented to carry out one or more of the operations and activities described herein and/or shown in the figures. FIG. 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Can differentiate between dark and light colours In specific embodiments, the electrodes 445 can be textured or corrugated for sensitivity purposes and to reduce the contact with the skin. With all of the correct settings selected, click File→Upload to push the code to the Touch Board. In other specific embodiments, at least one of the sensor circuits has a floating ground (e.g., two sensor circuits, each having floating grounds, all the sensor circuits with each having floating grounds, etc.) The capacitance-to-digital converter converts the capacitance values (e.g., the relative changes) to a digital signal and outputs the digital signal to the electrical-signal sensing circuit 327, which can include or be a microcontroller or other processing circuitry. The heartrate variability can be determined from the distribution of individual heartrate values. The transducer circuit 110, as illustrated by FIG. ”). The beam of light hits the object and gets reflected back in an angle However, embodiments in accordance with the present disclosure are not so limited and can include a dielectric layer that is position at a portion of and/or area of the electrode that is arranged to contact the skin surface, and/or surrounds at least part of the respective electrode or the sensor circuits. In other instances, well known features have not been described in detail so as not to obscure the description of the examples herein. 9B illustrates data captured using the above-described apparatus in response to signal changes caused by a user making up and down motions with their hand and with a 6 inch amplitude. The method can include placing at least one electrode of an apparatus near or onto the skin of the user and sensing pulse-wave events. In various specific embodiments, the distance is typically less than 100 microns from the skin, which can be a distance sufficient to obtain signals having resulting signal-to-noise values that are low enough to obtain heart rate and/or blood pressure therefrom. Various aspects may be appreciated through the following discussion of non-limiting examples which use exemplary contexts. ” is interpreted as “an electrode . . If not, check out the Uploading FAQ. The apparatus includes a single (braided) wire electrode. 12 illustrates example pulse-waveform 1238 captured using the above-described apparatus. As specific examples, the pulse-waveform can be processed to determine a heart rate, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and/or blood volume. The various embodiments described above and as further described in the below more detailed/experimental embodiments, make reference to a user and the respective wearable apparatus confirming to the skin or body of the user. FIG. The conductive layer may alternatively be sandwiched between two insulating layers. Upload the Proximity code to the Touch Board. Further, as described herein, the measurement of changes in pressure, which are indicative of a change in capacitance, can be sensed when the sensor circuit is touching the skin or other surface. As illustrated by FIG. The spacer 217 includes one or more structures formed of a material, in which the length (e.g., the distance from the electrode to the skin surface) sets the distance between at least a portion of the sensor circuit/electrode and the skin. You could decrease these further to increase sensitivity, if you like, but be careful. 16 illustrates example data collected using an apparatus, in accordance with various embodiments. FIG. The relative changes in capacitance over a period of time can be used to generate and/or otherwise output a pulse-waveform signal. 24B illustrates the ability of the electrical-signal sensing apparatus to capture subtle features of the pulse-waveform 2460 that can correlate the waveform to blood pressure. The electrode 102 is used to sense pressure and/or capacitance changes that are attributable to pulse-wave events and output a signal indicative of the sensed pressure or capacitance changes to the electrical-signal sensing circuit 106 via the sensor circuit 103 and a communication path 104 (e.g., the electrode is connected to or plugged-in to the sensor circuit 103 which captures and outputs the signal indicative of a capacitance value). A narrow pulse pressure can be indicative of cardiac tamponade, or any other sort of low output state (e.g., severe cardiogenic shock, massive pulmonary embolism or tension pneumothorax). A proximity sensor is a sensor able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical contact. Note that the release threshold must ALWAYS be less than the touch threshold. FIG. As previously described, changes in capacitance are carried by the electrode and respective sensor circuit and are responsive to pressure and/or electric field modulations attributable to hemodynamic or pulse-wave events. FIG. The electrodes 102-1, 102-2, and 102-3 can be placed at different locations of the apparatus to improve positional accuracy and/or to provide one or more reference signals for differential analysis. Carefully remove the masking tape while the paint is slightly wet to avoid tearing off the paint.,,,,

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